The Flodden wall – medieval Edinburgh’s main defensive wall. Enclosing the southern part of the city, through what is today the Grassmarket, Cowgate and Greyfriars, the northern section of the city was defended by the Nor Loch and nobody wanted to dip in to that, it was disgusting.
The newly crowned king of England was up to their usual rhetoric claiming to be overlord of Scotland, then in 1513 Henry VIII of England invaded France, James IV of Scotland reenacted the Auld Alliance and invaded England, Unfortunately this was a mistake and the Scottish army was massacred. James was also killed thus being the last Scottish monarch to die on the battlefield.
This wall was built in fear of an English reprisal, but it’s also the main reason why there are so many closes in Edinburgh’s old town – Build buildings close together, build them high as space was premium. (gardyloo & haud yer hun – but thats another story)
you can still see Surviving fragments throughout the city, as with its expansion the Teller wall